General Ophthalmology

 

1- HIV Etiology:

* Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

* Occlusion of the central vein of the ischemic form of retinal

* Retinal Tear

* Terson syndrome (HIV associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage)

* Eales disease

* Before a subconjunctival hemorrhage spontaneous water, always think of intraocular foreign bodies unnoticed;must also sought hypertension.

* Small ulcers spread to the cornea (superficial punctate keratitis = KPS) -> adenovirus keratitis and dry eye syndrome.

Vitreous hemorrhage intraocular

Vitreous hemorrhage intraocular

* Herpetic keratitis: dendritic ulcer or geographical map

* Blepharospasm: consequence of acute keratitis

* Keratitis neuroparalytic: dystrophic keratitis secondary to corneal anesthesia (inocclusion eyelid and facial palsy).

* Hypopion: purulent fluid level in the anterior chamber

* Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with recurrent anterior uveitis of character and good prognosis.

* Disease Still gives severe uveitis is associated with cataracts and keratitis in strip.

* The neovascular glaucoma gives a similar picture with acute angle-closure glaucoma.

* Episcleritis: red and painful eye without loss of visual acuity (pain seems to tell the instillation of a vasoconstrictor eye drops).

* Ocular hypertension is defined by a pressure> 21 mmHg (the average is 16 mmHg).

* Ocular hypertension is not synonymous with glaucoma All hypertonia ocu-lar do not cause glaucoma; there are open-angle glaucomas which the intraocular pressure is within the normal limits.

* Kinetic perimetry (Goldmann perimeter); static perimetry (perimeter Friedmann).

* Congenital glaucoma: occurs in the first 6 months megalocornea, tearing and photophobia. Evolution towards buphthalmos -> blindness Surgical treatment (goniotomy Barkan; trabeculectomy) …

* Terson syndrome: vitreous hemorrhage associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

* Hyalite: vitreous inflammatory disorder in posterior uveitis (toxoplasmosis).

* During the occlusion of the central artery of the retina, the fovea keeps its color as it is vascularized by the choroid.

* The total power of convergence is about 60 diopters

* Amblyopia: This is the state of decreased visual acuity functional or organic

* Much of the development of the world is done during the first two years of life, which is why emmetropia is reached around age 2 or 3 years

* The loss of accommodative power was established about 45 years and became full to 65

* Floater: floaters

* Presbyopia will be seen later in myopia

* Ultrasound B is always indicated when the retina is not visible (HIV) to remove a retinal detachment.

* Visual Eclipses for a few seconds papilledema of HIC

* Foster-Kennedy syndrome is unilateral optic atrophy with papilledema on the other side (brain tumor + HIC)

* HIC -> bilateral involvement of VI above

* Pilocarpine: miotic (sympathomimetic)

* Indications mydriatic eye drops, to prevent or break the adhesions; put to rest the eye (uveitis, keratitis).

* Scopolamine is an anticholinergic -> mydriatic

* The first histological lesions of diabetic retinopathy is the thickening of the basement membrane, loss of pericytes and endothelial cell loss of retinal capillaries => obstruction, microanévrisme.

* The cotton wool spots (dysoriques nodules): superficial white lesions and small sizes; they correspond to the axoplasmic material accumulation in optical fibers. They reflect the retinal artery occlusion precapillary.

Anterior uveitis

Anterior uveitis

2- Anterior uveitis:

* Red eye; Rating Decrease in visual acuity and moderately deep pain

* Circle périkératique; normal corneal transparency

* Pupil in miosis sometimes or posterior synechiae iridocristalliniennes with pupillary distortion.

* Slit Lamp: Tyndall phenomenon (proteins and cells in the aqueous humor) + precipitate rétrocornéen

* The FO is systematic review looking for posterior uveitis

* Causes include ankylosing spondylitis; herpes; Still’s disease; sarcoidosis, Behcet disease (+ hyalite; + hypopyon).

* Treatment: mydriatic eye drops + topical corticosteroids.

Glaucoma

Glaucoma

3- Secondary Glaucoma:

A- Traumatic:

Significant hyphema; lens dislocation

B- Achievement of the uvea:

– Uveitis hypertensive

– Chronic Uveitis (pupillary seclusion?)

C- vasculopathies:

– Increasing the episcleral venous pressure (pulsatile exophthalmos; mediastinal tumors orbital tumors ….)

– Thrombosis of central retinal vein (glaucoma 100th day)

– Rubeosis iris diabetic.

D- ocular tumors:

Choroidal hemangioma (Sturge Weber); choroidal melanoma …

E- Drugs:

Long-term corticosteroid

Note:

HIV = intraocular vitreous hemorrhage

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