Terms Disease in Ophthalmology

 

* TOXOPLASMA EYE: relapsing chorioretinitis; hyalite. Manifested by myodésopsies and decreased visual acuity. In FO, whitish home that progresses to atrophic scar

1- Multiple sclerosis:

A- Neuropathy:

* Visual acuity (-); retrobulbar pain; Direct RPM (-)

* Review the fundus is normal (retrobulbar neuropathy)

* Visual Fields: central scotoma or COECO-central

* Uhthoff’s phenomenon: thermolability of demyelinated axons

B- Achievement oculomotor:

* VI palsy

* Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (very evocative)

Diabetic retinopathy preproliferative

Diabetic retinopathy preproliferative

2- hypertension:

A- RETINOPATHY HYPERTENSIVE:

– The first sign is the decrease in arterial caliber (vasoconstriction)

– Retinal hemorrhages splinter

– Macular edema associated with dry exudate (deep) which reflects the sustainable disruption of the blood-retinal barrier (OHR) -> stellar available (macular star)

– Papilledema (-> enlargement of the blind spot)

– Nodules cottony (arteriolar occlusion) regresses after treatment of hypertension

– Deep retinal hemorrhage (occlusion of arterioles -> retinal infarction)

– The decrease in visual acuity is rare

B- choroidopathy HYPERTENSIVE:

– Ischemia and necrosis of the pigment epithelium by choriocapillaris occlusion

– Acute phase -> Elschnig spot (small deep pigmented spots)

– Exudative retinal detachment in the posterior pole

C- ARTERIOSCLEROSIS:

– Enhancement reflection arteriolar the eye of background due to wall thickening

– Crossing Sign (retinal vein is overwritten by the dilated artery and upstream)

Préthrombose -> retinal hemorrhage at the intersection worthy

– Retinal Vein Occlusion

D- CLASSIFICATION:

* Stage I: frozen arteries brilliant

* Stage II: crossing sign

* Stage III: retinal hemorrhages and cotton wool spots; venous dilatation

* Stage IV: papilledema

3- Diabetes:

* The edematous phenomena predominate in the macula; occlusive phenomena affect primarily the peripheral retina (ischemia -> neovascularization)

* The hard exudates are secondary to the precipitation of plasma lipoproteins in the thickness of the retina; are usually arranged in a ring (exudates circinate)

* Intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA) and dilation telangiectasia Vasc

* Non priliférante retinopathy: puncture intra-retinal hemorrhages, microaneurysms, hard exudates, cystoid macular edema (WTO) or not; cotton wool spots

* R. preproliferative: irregular dilated veins “rosary”; peripheral ischemia; significant intra-retinal hemorrhages; AMIR

* R. proliferative: new vessels; rubeosis iridis (iris neovascularization)

* Complications R. proliferative: HIV (neo-vx prépapillaires) glaucoma (rubeosis iridis) retinal detachment by traction (neo-vx prépapillaires)

* Other complications maculopathies (edema, ischemia)

* Causes of blindness: macular edema (cystoid or not); ischemic maculopathy; exudates central foveal dry; retinal detachment; glaucoma.

* Angiography is indicated when there is a R & D FO and is not routine in any diabetic; it specifies better the extent of retinal ischemia and time of the laser.

* The laser panretinal photocoagulation is the specific treatment of proliferative R.. The treatment should be urgent in appearance of new vessels Preretinal.

* Laser treatment of maculopathy: indicated in cases of edema if there is a (-) of the significant and prolonged visual acuity; in case of hard exudates; TRT is not urgent.

4- Other complications:

* Infectious: stye relapsed; blepharitis; dacryocystitis

* Lens: Cataract; early presbyopia

* Oculomotor paralysis

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