1- occlusion of the central artery: In the retina
* Visual acuity collapsed abruptly limited to light perception
* The pupil is mydriasis aréflectique. Abolition of direct RPM RPM with preservation of consensus in the illumination of the healthy eye.
* It is most often due to embolic disease
* The fluorescein angiography is not essential
* The final retinal lesions appear after 90 min of ischemia
At the back of the eye:
* Diffuse narrowing of the arterial caliber and sometimes grainy current
* A few hours later -> ischemic retinal edema “milky white” contrasting with a “cherry red spot in the macula.”
2- central vein occlusion: From the retina
* Acute onset of blurred vision (varies according to clinical form)
* The edema is the most common form (¾); but the passage to ischemic form is possible.
At the back of the eye: The cardinal signs are
* The papilledema
* Bleeding sprinkled all over the retinal surface: Surface (splinter) or deep (sclerosis).
* The cotton wool spots (signs of ischemia) rare in the edematous form
* Venous changes: tortuosity and venous dilatation
3- AMD: Macular degeneration
* Starts after 50 years; reached selectively macula
* FDR: age;
HTA; light color of the iris; significant exposure to light; genetic factors.
* Clinic: metamorphopsia (deformation of object); central scotoma; there is a decrease in the early phase of the near visual acuity.
* In FO: drusen; hemorrhage and / or detachment of the retina macular …
4- Retinal detachment:
* Rhegmatogenous detachment (secondary to retinal tear)
* It recognizes three main causes: idiopathic (elderly); high myopia; cataract surgery.
* SF: myodésopsies (floaters) followed phosphenes and amputation of the peripheral visual field (black veil)
* FO: Relief retina, mobile phone, cerebriform appearance
NOIA: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
* Decline in brutal unilateral visual acuity, usually massive
* Decreased pupillary reflex live
* Total papillary edema or sector
* Fascicular deficit (or central scotoma) in the examination of the visual field
* The most common cause is atherosclerosis. Systematically GCA;