Acute bronchitis:

acute inflammation of the bronchial mucosa, usually viral. It is sometimes caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in older children.

In children over 2 years, acute recurrent bronchitis or bronchitis ‘wheezing’ should consider asthma (see Asthma, page 73). In children under 2 years of age, consider bronchiolitis (see Bronchiolitis, page 64).

BronchitisClinical signs:

often begins with nasopharyngitis that “descends” progressively: pharyngitis,

laryngitis, tracheitis and tracheobronchitis.

– Significant cough, dry at first, then productive

– Moderate fever

– No tachypnea or dyspnea

– On pulmonary auscultation: rattling


– Fever: paracetamol PO (see Fever, page 26).

– Although moisturize, moisturize the atmosphere (bowl of water or a wet towel).

– In children: unblocking the nasopharynx by washing with sodium chloride

0.9% or Ringer’s lactate, 4-6 times / day.

– Good ground, context nasopharyngitis or flu unnecessary antibiotics

– Antibiotic treatment only if:

• bad ground: malnutrition, measles, rickets, severe anemia, heart disease, elderly patients, etc.

• onset of dyspnea with fever higher than 38.5 ° C and purulent sputum: a bacterial infection caused by Haemophilus influenzae or Pneumococcus is likely.

PO amoxicillin

Children: 100 mg / kg / day divided into 2 or 3 doses for 5 days

Adults: 3 g / day in 2 or 3 doses for 5 days or chloramphenicol PO

Children over 2 months: 50 to 100 mg / kg / day in 3 divided doses for 5 days

Adults: 3 g / day in 3 divided doses for 5 days.

Chronic bronchitis:

chronic inflammation of the bronchial mucosa original irritative (tobacco, pollution), allergy (asthma), infectious (acute recurrent bronchitis), which may progress to chronic respiratory insufficiency.

Clinical signs:

– Cough for 3 consecutive months per year for at least two consecutive years.

– Dyspnea absent at first. It appears after several years of evolution, effort and permanent.

– On pulmonary auscultation: rattling (always eliminate tuberculosis).

In acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis:

– New or increased dyspnoea.

– Increase in volume of sputum.

– Change becomes purulent expectoration.


– In cases of chronic bronchitis easy: unnecessary antibiotics.

– In acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, only on a fragile ground, an antibiotic treatment may be useful. See acute bronchitis, previous page.

– Discourage tobacco and irritants.