– Dementia can be defined as an intellectual state of weakness acquired, progressive, more or less irreversible
– In cortical dementia (Alzheimer’s type) the subject has lost its tools; in the subcortical dysfunction, but it still has not used
– Syndrome frontotemporal corresponds to Pick’s disease. The temporoparietal syndrome corresponds to Alzheimer’s disease
– Dementia subcortical -> Parkinson’s disease; Huntington; progressive supranuclear palsy
– Reappearance of primitive reflexes (palm-chin reflex, grasp reflex, sucking reflex)
– The most common cause of treatable dementia (pseudo-dementia) is depression -> psychomotor retardation; depression in semantic memory (word meanings), implicit memory (implied) and indexed memory is retained.
– Schizophrenia (and other chronic psychotic disorders) evolving into dementia if inadequately treated
A- SYNDROME TEMPOROMANDIBULAR PARIETAL:
* Memory Disorders (first recent developments)
* Progressive Disorientation: temporal and spatial; and prosopagnosia
* Disorders intellectual efficiency (impaired judgment of attention and concentration, difficulty solving problems)
* Disorders language; Gestures disorders (apraxia); constructive disorders; gnostic disorders
* Sometimes delusions interpretive, imaginative, hallucination
B- SYNDROME FRONTO-TEMPORAL:
* First brand through personal neglect
* Then disinhibition; impulsiveness and loss of mental flexibility
* Food disturbed behavior (excess and incoherence); repetitive and stereotyped behavior
* Total Indifference and a great lack of attention; apathy; euphoria (Moria)
* Memory, orientation and praxis have long preserved.
C- SYNDROME SUB-CORTICAL:
* This is an anticipatory pathology
* Intellectual Slow
* Aboulie (loss of control)
* Great apathy
* Recall memory disorders mainly
* Front dysexecutive Syndrome: Dissociation between volition (think of the action) and the action itself.
* Language is largely preserved.
A- Normal pressure hydrocephalus:
intellectual decline with increased apathy; gait and balance with retropulsion; sphincter disorders
B- Endocrine Causes:
Hypothyroidism ; Other rarer: hyperthyroidism, dysparathyroïdie, hypoglycemia repeatedly, folate deficiency ….
C- Creutzfeld Jakob Disease:
pyramidal and extrapyramidal disorder, myoclonus; EEG characteristics nickname with rhythmic discharges (cycles 1 / s)
D- Korsakoff syndrome:
anterograde amnesia memory; false recognitions and fabrications. It is due to vitamin B1 deficiency (bilateral destruction of the mammillary bodies); alcoholism is the main cause. Evolution to dementia.
E- Some neurological conditions:
Parkinson disease ; Huntington; advanced in September; Friedrich disease (spinocerebellar hérédodégénérescence)
Chronic subdural hematoma; brain tumors …