Type 2 diabetes

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I – Introduction:

A- Definition of type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by an abnormal rise in blood glucose levels. It occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin or when the body’s cells no longer respond properly to the insulin produced. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps transport glucose from the food we eat to the cells where it is used for energy. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90% to 95% of all diabetes cases. It can occur at any age, but is more common in people aged 45 and older, and in people who are overweight or obese. Risk factors also include a sedentary lifestyle, an unhealthy diet and a family history of diabetes. Diagnosing and treating type 2 diabetes as early as possible is important to prevent serious complications such as cardiovascular disease, eye, nerve and kidney damage, and other health problems.

B- Incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes:

The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased alarmingly worldwide, due to the increase in the elderly population, obesity and physical inactivity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 422 million people worldwide had diabetes in 2014 and this trend is expected to continue to rise. In many developed countries, almost 10% of the adult population suffers from type 2 diabetes. Data also show an increase in the number of cases among young people and children, due to obesity and a mode of unhealthy life. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is also higher in certain populations, such as people of African, African American, Hispanic, or Indian descent. Type 2 diabetes is a significant burden on health care systems due to treatment costs and potentially serious complications. It is therefore important to invest in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes to improve the quality of life of people with this disease and reduce the burden on health care systems.

C- Importance of prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes:

Prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes are essential to improve the quality of life of those affected and prevent serious complications. A healthy and balanced diet, an active lifestyle and weight management can help prevent the development of the disease in people at risk. For people who already have type 2 diabetes, regular follow-up with a doctor and proper treatment are important to keep blood glucose levels normal and prevent complications. This can include eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, taking medication, as well as managing stress and supporting sleep. Regular examinations such as blood sugar tests, eye exams and kidney tests can also help monitor disease progression and detect potential complications. Early and adequate treatment of type 2 diabetes can help improve the quality of life of those affected, prevent serious complications and extend lifespan.

II- Causes of type 2 diabetes:

A- Risk factors:

There are several risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, some of them are modifiable, while others are non-modifiable. Modifiable risk factors include obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and excessive alcohol consumption. Age, family history of diabetes, race and ethnicity are non-modifiable risk factors. People with prediabetes, which is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be considered diabetic, are also considered to be at risk of developing diabetes. type 2. It is important to monitor these risk factors to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and to take steps for modifiable ones, such as diet modification, regular exercise and weight management. Preventing and treating type 2 diabetes early can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the quality of life for people with diabetes.

1- Genetic factors:

Genetic factors play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. However, genetics cannot be considered the sole cause of the disease. Studies have shown that the presence of certain genes can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but environmental factors such as diet, lifestyle and weight are also important. For example, someone with a family history of diabetes may be more likely to develop the disease, but a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet can speed up the process. People with a family history of diabetes need to be more vigilant about their health and should watch their diet, their weight and level of physical activity to reduce their risk of developing the disease. It is also important to regularly monitor blood glucose levels and seek medical attention in case of suspicious symptoms. Advances in genetic techniques may help to better understand the genetic factors associated with type 2 diabetes and to develop more effective methods of prevention and treatment.

2- Lifestyle factors:

Lifestyle factors can play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. A sedentary lifestyle, an unhealthy diet high in fats and added sugars, and excessive alcohol consumption can contribute to the development of diabetes. disease. Obesity is also an important lifestyle factor that can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes because excess fat can interfere with the body’s ability to use insulin effectively. People who are sedentary and lack regular physical activity are also at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Healthy lifestyles, such as eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, and managing weight, can help reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Additionally, regular physical activity can improve insulin sensitivity and help control blood glucose levels. It is important to consider lifestyle factors to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and to maintain overall good health.

B- Mechanism of development of type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body can no longer produce enough insulin or cannot effectively use the insulin that is produced. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body use glucose, the main source of energy, from food. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes insulin resistant, which means that insulin can no longer perform its normal function of bringing glucose into cells for energy. This can lead to high blood glucose levels, which can damage blood vessels and nerves over time. The pancreas may also no longer produce enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance, which can lead to excess blood glucose.

1- Role of insulin:

Insulin plays a crucial role in the development and control of type 2 diabetes. It is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps control blood glucose levels by bringing glucose into cells to produce energy. In type 2 diabetes, the body becomes insulin resistant, which means that insulin can no longer perform its normal function of moving glucose into cells. This can lead to high blood glucose levels, which can damage blood vessels and nerves over time. The pancreas may also no longer produce enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance, which can lead to excess blood glucose. Treatment for type 2 diabetes often includes the use of insulin or medications that increase insulin production or improve insulin sensitivity. Understanding the role of insulin in the development and control of type 2 diabetes is important to better understand treatments and prevention of the disease.

2- Role of insulin resistance:

Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the development of type 2 diabetes. When the body becomes insulin resistant, insulin can no longer perform its normal function of bringing glucose into cells to produce insulin. energy. This can lead to high blood glucose levels, which can damage blood vessels and nerves over time. The pancreas may also no longer produce enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance, which can lead to excess blood glucose. Lifestyle factors such as lack of exercise, eating a diet high in fats and added sugars, and being overweight can all contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Treatment for type 2 diabetes often includes the use of insulin or medications that increase insulin production or improve insulin sensitivity. Understanding the role of insulin resistance in the development of type 2 diabetes is important to better understand treatments and prevention of the disease.

III- Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:

A- Frequent symptoms:

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes can include excessive thirst, frequent urination, unusual tiredness, inexplicable weight loss, increased hunger, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, frequent infections, and itchy skin. However, it is possible to develop type 2 diabetes without having any obvious symptoms, which can make the disease difficult to detect. That’s why it’s important to get tested regularly for diabetes, especially if you have risk factors such as being overweight, a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of diabetes, or if you’re over 45. If you think you have symptoms of type 2 diabetes, it’s important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

B- Serious symptoms:

Severe symptoms of type 2 diabetes can include diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and heart disease. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal condition that occurs when the body can no longer produce insulin, which can lead to a buildup of ketone bodies in the blood and acidification of body fluids. Diabetic coma is also a serious condition that can occur when blood glucose levels are very high or very low. Diabetic nephropathy can lead to kidney failure, which may require dialysis or kidney transplantation. Diabetic neuropathy can cause pain, loss of feeling or weakness in the legs and feet, which can increase the risk of injury and infection. Diabetic retinopathy can cause vision loss or even blindness. Finally, heart disease is an increased risk for people with type 2 diabetes due to damage to blood vessels caused by high blood glucose. It is therefore important to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and treat severe symptoms promptly to minimize health risks. Heart disease is an increased risk for people with type 2 diabetes due to damage to blood vessels caused by high blood glucose. It is therefore important to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and treat severe symptoms promptly to minimize health risks. Heart disease is an increased risk for people with type 2 diabetes due to damage to blood vessels caused by high blood glucose. It is therefore important to monitor blood glucose levels regularly and treat severe symptoms promptly to minimize health risks.

IV- Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes:

A- Diabetes screening tests:

There are several screening tests for type 2 diabetes, such as fasting blood glucose test, postprandial blood glucose test, HbA1c test, and oral glucose tolerance test. The fasting blood glucose test measures blood glucose levels while fasting, while the postprandial blood glucose test measures blood glucose levels after a meal. The HbA1c test measures the amount of glucose bound to hemoglobin in the blood, which reflects blood glucose levels over a period of several weeks. Finally, the oral glucose tolerance test measures the body’s ability to regulate blood glucose levels after ingesting a specific amount of glucose. Healthcare professionals often recommend a combination of these tests to accurately determine if a person has type 2 diabetes.

B- Confirmatory diagnosis:

Confirmatory diagnosis of type 2 diabetes can be made from several tests, such as fasting blood glucose test, postprandial blood glucose test, HbA1c test, and oral glucose tolerance test. Diagnosing type 2 diabetes often requires abnormal results on at least two tests. For example, an abnormal fasting blood glucose test result in combination with an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test result may be considered a confirmatory diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. However, the exact diagnostic criteria may vary depending on the recommendations of the different health organizations. Healthcare professionals may also check for other factors, such as age, family history, and history of diabetes-related illnesses.

V- Treatment of type 2 diabetes:

A- Lifestyle modification:

Lifestyle modification is a key part of treating type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modifications typically include adopting a healthy, balanced diet, increasing physical activity, losing weight if necessary, and quitting smoking. By eating a healthy diet, people with diabetes can reduce their intake of sugar and saturated fat, which can help control their blood sugar. Physical activity can also help improve insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin resistance, which can help control blood glucose levels. Weight loss may also be beneficial for people with diabetes, as it can help improve insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin resistance. Finally, quitting smoking can help prevent serious complications associated with type 2 diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease and blood vessel damage. In general, lifestyle changes can help control blood sugar and prevent complications associated with type 2 diabetes.

1- Healthy food:

Diet is an important aspect of treating type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes should eat a healthy, balanced diet to control blood sugar levels and prevent complications associated with diabetes. A healthy diet for people with diabetes should be rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources, such as white meats, nuts, and seeds. People with diabetes should avoid foods high in sugar, saturated fats, and trans fats, as these foods can cause blood sugar levels to rise rapidly. It’s also important for people with diabetes to control the portion of each food they eat, as this can help control their total calorie intake and weight.

2- Regular exercise:

Regular exercise is a key part of managing type 2 diabetes. Exercise can help control blood glucose levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and build muscle. People with diabetes should aim to get at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week, such as brisk walking, swimming or dancing. Exercise can also help control weight and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. It is important to consult a doctor before starting a new exercise program, especially if a person has complications associated with diabetes. People with diabetes may also benefit from doing muscle-strengthening exercises to strengthen muscles and improve insulin sensitivity. Ultimately, regular exercise can help people with type 2 diabetes control their disease and improve their overall health.

B- Medicines:

Medications are often used in combination with lifestyle modifications to manage type 2 diabetes. The different types of medications can help control blood glucose levels, stimulate insulin production, or improve insulin sensitivity. The most commonly used drugs include drugs to increase insulin production, such as sulfonylureas, drugs to improve insulin sensitivity, such as biguanides, and glucosidase alpha-amylase inhibitors, which help to control glucose levels by reducing the amount of glucose absorbed in the gut. Medications can also include injectable medications, such as insulin. It is important to work with a doctor to determine the best treatment for each person, as medications can have potential side effects and are not appropriate for everyone. Medications can be adjusted based on disease progression and each person’s individual needs.

1- Drugs to improve insulin sensitivity:

Medications that aim to improve insulin sensitivity are often used to manage type 2 diabetes. This type of medication can help increase the body’s response to insulin, which helps control glucose levels in the blood. Biguanides, such as metformin, are one of the most commonly used types of drugs to improve insulin sensitivity. They may help lower blood glucose levels by increasing the sensitivity of cells to insulin, reducing glucose production by the liver, and increasing glucose utilization by muscles. Other drugs to improve insulin sensitivity include thiazolidinediones, such as pioglitazone, which help regulate glucose levels by increasing the sensitivity of cells to insulin. It is important to speak with a doctor to determine if these medications may be useful for the treatment of diabetes and to assess potential side effects.

2- Drugs to reduce the production of glucose by the liver:

Medications that aim to reduce the production of glucose by the liver may be helpful in managing type 2 diabetes. This class of medications may help control blood glucose levels by reducing the amount of glucose produced by the liver. Sulfonylureas, such as glibenclamide, are an example of drugs that can reduce the production of glucose by the liver. They work by stimulating the production of insulin by pancreatic cells, which can help regulate blood glucose levels. However, it is important to note that these drugs can also cause hypoglycemia, a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of glucose in the blood.

C- Insulin:

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that plays a key role in regulating blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes is often characterized by insulin resistance, which means that the body does not respond adequately to the insulin produced. This can lead to increased blood glucose levels, which in turn can cause serious long-term health problems. To treat type 2 diabetes, insulin can be given by injection or through an insulin delivery device such as an insulin pump. It is important to note that insulin can only be used under the supervision of a doctor, as an overdose can lead to hypoglycemia, a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of glucose in the blood. By working with a doctor,

VI- Complications of type 2 diabetes:

A- Short-term complications:

Type 2 diabetes can cause short-term complications such as polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, fatigue, and blurred vision. It can also cause frequent urinary tract and skin infections, as well as nerve pain or neuropathy. Additionally, diabetes can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke because it can damage blood vessels and nerves. Mismanagement of diabetes can also lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal condition that occurs when blood sugar levels become very high and the body produces acid. It is therefore important to manage type 2 diabetes quickly and effectively to minimize the risk of short-term complications.

1- Hypoglycemia:

Hypoglycemia is a common condition in people with type 2 diabetes who use insulin or drugs that increase insulin sensitivity. It occurs when blood glucose levels become very low. Symptoms include sweating, hunger, rapid heartbeat, confusion, fatigue, and sometimes loss of consciousness. It is important to treat hypoglycaemia quickly by eating foods high in sugar, such as candy or fruit juice, or by injecting glucose when needed. To prevent hypoglycemia, it is advisable to regularly monitor blood glucose levels, eat regular and balanced meals and follow the doctor’s instructions regarding the dose of insulin or medication. Besides,

2- Diabetic ketoacidosis:

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes. It is a life-threatening condition where the body is in a state of insulin deficiency and accumulates an excessive amount of ketone bodies. This can lead to an increase in the acidity of the blood, which can be dangerous for your health. Symptoms include vomiting, excessive thirst, rapid and shallow breathing, confusion and drowsiness. If a person with diabetes suspects that they have diabetic ketoacidosis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately to receive appropriate treatment. Treatment may include insulin injection, fluid and electrolyte salt replacement,

B- Long-term complications:

Type 2 diabetes can lead to serious long-term health complications. If the disease is not managed properly, it can damage blood vessels and nerves, which can cause vision problems, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, circulation problems in the feet and nerve damage. People with type 2 diabetes are also at higher risk of developing heart disease, stroke, eye and retinal disease, nerve disease, and kidney disease. People with diabetes are also more likely to have amputations due to circulation problems and foot infections.

1- Cardiovascular diseases:

Type 2 diabetes is considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. People with diabetes are more likely to suffer from these conditions due to disruption of blood glucose levels, which can damage arteries and veins. In addition, diabetes can cause fat to build up in blood vessels, which can reduce their diameter and increase the risk of blood clots. It is therefore important to take steps to control diabetes and monitor cardiovascular risk factors to prevent long-term complications.

2- Nerve damage:

Nerve damage can be a significant side effect of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. This condition is known as diabetic neuropathy and can affect nerves in the lower limbs, hands, feet, and internal organs. Symptoms may include pain, burning, tingling, loss of sensation, reduced ability to feel pain or hot and cold sensations, and loss of ability to coordinate movement. If diabetic neuropathy is not managed properly, it can lead to additional complications, such as foot injuries and infections that can lead to amputation.

3- Eye damage:

Eye damage is a common complication of type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing eye problems such as cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy is an eye condition that can damage small blood vessels in the retina. If left untreated, it can lead to permanent vision loss. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is another complication that can lead to sudden vision loss. It is important for people with diabetes to have regular follow-ups with an eye doctor to detect eye problems early and treat them quickly.

4- Kidney damage:

Kidney damage is one of the major long-term complications of type 2 diabetes. Kidney function depends on the body’s ability to produce insulin and insulin sensitivity. If type 2 diabetes is poorly controlled, glucose can damage small blood vessels in the kidneys. This can lead to kidney failure, a potentially serious condition where the kidneys can no longer perform their functions properly. Kidney complications can also include a buildup of fluids and salts in the body, as well as high blood pressure, which can make the condition worse.

5- Skin diseases:

People with type 2 diabetes are often more likely to develop skin diseases. This can include frequent skin infections, such as nail fungus and fungal skin infections. Some of the more serious skin complications of diabetes include diabetic neuropathy, which can lead to pain, burning, and tingling in the extremities, and autonomic neuropathy, which can lead to trouble sweating. People with diabetes are also more likely to develop skin disorders such as acanthosis nigricans, which is characterized by dark patches on the skin, and diabetes dermopapillomatosis, which manifests as benign tumors on the legs.

VII- Prevention of type 2 diabetes:

A- Adoption of healthy lifestyle habits:

Adopting healthy lifestyle habits is crucial to preventing and controlling type 2 diabetes. This includes modifying the diet to eat a healthy, balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and healthy fats. , while limiting foods high in sugar, saturated fat and sodium. Regular exercise is also important, aiming to get at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day, such as walking, swimming or cycling. It is also important to maintain a healthy weight, as being overweight can increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modifications can help regulate blood glucose levels, improve sensitivity insulin and prevent the long-term complications of diabetes.

B- Early screening and regular monitoring:

Early detection and regular follow-up are two key elements in preventing or limiting complications related to type 2 diabetes. By doing early detection, it is possible to determine if a person is at high risk of developing the disease and to take appropriate necessary measures to prevent it. Regular monitoring, on the other hand, allows you to monitor the evolution of the disease and take measures to control blood sugar and minimize complications. Regular follow-up also includes regular medical exams to monitor potential complications and tests to measure hemoglobin A1c levels, which can help determine the effectiveness of treatment.

C- Early and effective treatment:

Early and effective treatment of type 2 diabetes can help prevent serious long-term complications from this chronic condition. Adopting healthy lifestyle habits, such as healthy eating, regular exercise, and weight management, can help control blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications. Also, medication may be needed to control blood sugar and improve insulin sensitivity. In some cases, insulin may be needed to help the body use blood glucose efficiently. Early detection and regular follow-up are important to detect potential complications and to follow the evolution of the disease. By working with a doctor,

VIII- Conclusion:

A- Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health problem:

Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health problem worldwide. Factors such as obesity, lack of exercise and unhealthy diet contribute to its rapid progression. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, which can cause chronic hyperglycemia, which in turn can lead to serious complications such as cardiovascular disease, damage to nerves, eyes and kidneys, as well than skin diseases. Early detection and regular follow-up can help prevent the onset of these complications. Early and effective treatment can help control blood sugar levels and prevent long-term complications. It is therefore important that governments,

B- It is important to understand the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that affects more and more people around the world. Causes can include poor diet, lack of exercise, obesity and a number of genetic factors. Symptoms may include excessive thirst, constant hunger, fatigue, frequent infections, blurred vision, and frequent urination. To diagnose type 2 diabetes, doctors usually do a fasting blood sugar test and may also recommend a glucose tolerance test.

Treatment for type 2 diabetes may include lifestyle modifications such as healthy eating and regular exercise, as well as medications to improve insulin sensitivity or reduce glucose production by the liver. If the disease is diagnosed early and effective treatment instituted, patients can effectively manage their condition and prevent serious long-term complications such as cardiovascular disease, nerve, eye and kidney damage, as well as skin diseases.

In summary, understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes is crucial to preventing serious complications and ensuring good long-term disease control. Early detection and regular monitoring by a doctor can play a crucial role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and help patients adopt healthy lifestyle habits to prevent disease progression.

C- Adopting healthy lifestyle habits and getting early detection can help prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and reduce the risk of serious complications:

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that can cause many serious complications, such as cardiovascular disease, nerve damage, eye damage, and kidney damage. That is why it is important to take measures to prevent its development. Adopting healthy lifestyle habits is a key factor in preventing type 2 diabetes. This includes a balanced diet and regular physical activity. Additionally, getting an early detection can help diagnose the disease at an early stage and allow for more effective treatment. Type 2 diabetes is a growing public health problem, so it is important to understand the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of the disease in order to take steps to prevent it.

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