Glucides, (oses)

Carbohydrates, (oses)

Carbohydrates, commonly called “sugars”, are an essential source of energy for the body. They can be used directly by the body or stored either in the form of glycogen in the muscles and the liver (where they constitute easily mobilized reserves), or in the form of triglycerides in adipose tissue.

Carbohydrates, (oses) - 1

The foods richest in carbohydrates are cereals (bread, pasta, rice, quinoa…), legumes (lentils, beans, peas…), fruits and of course sweets and sugary drinks.

Carbohydrates can be composed of glucose, but also of fructose, maltose, galactose (in lactose)… and the length of their chain can be very variable.

Carbohydrates, (oses) assemble in carbohydrates. None are essential.

The oses are simple sugars, in a way “micro-fatty acids”. Most of the important doses in biochemistry and human nutrition are 6 carbon. They are hexoses, like

  • Carbohydrates, (oses)glucose, the reference fuel for cells
  • fructose
  • galactose

Two oses form a disaccharide like

  • sucrose (“sugar” = glucose + fructose)
  • lactose (a glucose + a galactose)
  • maltose (a “diglucose”)

Complex carbohydrates: polysaccharides, are polymers of ose:

  • starch, a polymer of glucose
  • cellulose, only digested in humans by colon bacteria
  • glycogen, the form of hepatic and muscle storage of glucose
  • hyaluronic acid, a mucopolysaccharide, found in the ground substance of connective tissues, to which they give their viscosity.
  • Oses (fructose, glucose, galactose)
  • Disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
  • Polysaccharides (starches, glycogen, fibers)

Some proteins have carbohydrate parts, the glycoproteins present in

  • enzymes
  • membrane receptors
  • transport proteins
  • and antibodies (immunoglobulins)

Carbohydrates, (oses) - 2

Combine lipids and oses, lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides and gangliosides.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) serve as antigens, are an integral part of the HLA system of histocompatibility and in blood groups. When they are of bacterial origin they can be violently pro-inflammatory (endotoxins).

Cerebrosides are major components of white matter, gray matter and myelin. There is also some in the skin.

Gangliosides are receptors and transduction factors incorporated into cell membranes where they play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, immunity, growth, differentiation, tumorigenesis (abnormal gangliosides appear in cell membranes cancerous).

We find oses in nucleotides: deoxyribose is integrated into DNA and ribose into RNA.

Slow carbohydrates – fast carbohydrates:

For a long time, it was believed that short-chain carbohydrates were the so-called “fast” sugars and that long-chain carbohydrates were the so-called “slow” carbohydrates. This is why bread, industrial breakfast cereals and potatoes have long had this reputation as “slow sugars”. Today, we know that this classification is totally wrong. Fluffy white bread, rich in starch, is a quick sugar. It is ventilated, digested quickly and releases its energy very quickly into the blood, which promotes pumping, temperamental instability, weight gain and also increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in the longer term. White bread, mashed potatoes, well-cooked vermicelli, rice pudding… are therefore “slow fake sugars”.

On the other hand, semi-wholemeal or wholemeal breads, al dente pasta, undercooked risotto rice … richer in fiber and denser are real slow carbohydrates.

Glycemic index:

The glycemic index (GI) makes it possible to estimate the impact of the sugars released by food on the blood glucose level (glycemia). Two foods containing the same amount of carbohydrate can therefore have completely different effects on our blood sugar. Foods with a high glycemic index will cause blood sugar levels to rise quickly and sharply. We will talk about fast carbohydrates. Those with a low GI will make it rise slowly and weakly. We will then speak of slow carbohydrates.

If you wish to consult a list of glycemic indexes or to find out more, consult the international table of glycemic indexes on Food advisor, or , or in the book “The new IG diet” published by Thierry Souccar. There you will find a summary table of the GIs of various staple foods. But the most important thing is to remember a few main principles, not to remember lists of glycemic indexes by heart.

  • Low GI = <55,
  • Average GI = between 56 and 69
  • High GI => 70.

Why do foods with a high glycemic index make you fat?

When we ingest carbohydrates, they are digested (cut into small pieces) and released as monosaccharides (most often glucose). This glucose will end up in our blood and therefore raise our blood sugar. In order to allow the use of this glucose by our cells (as fuel) and cause the formation of glycogen in the liver, the pancreas will release a hormone, insulin, which will lower our blood sugar. During a large consumption of hyperglycemic foods, the amount of insulin released will also be large and the sugar will no longer be converted into glycogen, but into triglycerides, that is to say into fat to be stored. This is all the more so since insulin causes triglycerides to enter the adipose tissue massively.The insulin released in excessive quantity will therefore cause an increase in fat mass.

In addition, glucose sticks to proteins and inhibits them. It is the glycation which will slow down all the enzymes, for example those which are used to make ATP. However, glucose not transformed into ATP will also be transformed into triglycerides to be stored instead of being spent on useful energy.

In addition, the rise in blood sugar and excess insulin will cause a secondary drop in blood sugar, a phenomenon which calls for sugar and triggers food intake again.

Finally, fast carbohydrates unbalance the flora of the colon in favor of bacteria which stimulate the appetite, increase the energy catabolism of cellulose and have a pro-inflammatory effect which causes overweight to progress to its complications (glucose intolerance and cardiovascular pathologies).

Glycemic load:

The GI tells us about the quality of the sugars but not on the quantity ingested. This is the reason why this notion of GI was refined and supplemented by the notion of glycemic load (CG) in the late 90s by Walter Willett. This notion of glycemic load makes it possible to assess the ability of a food to raise our blood sugar for a common portion of the food.

Its calculation is very simple. Just multiply the GI by the amount of carbohydrate in the portion of food you usually eat and divide it by 100.


For a given food, a GC is considered low if it is less than or equal to 10, moderate if it is between 11 and 19 and high if it is greater than or equal to 20. The glycemic load for the day will ideally be around 80 and certainly should not be greater than 120.

Thus, 60g of “Corn Flakes”, which have a very high GI (82), contain 50g of carbohydrates. The CG will be (50 x 82) / 100 = 41. They are therefore a real bomb for our pancreas!

In contrast, a 200g serving of watermelon which also has a fairly high GI (76) contains only 13g of carbohydrate. It will therefore have a very acceptable GC of (13 x76) / 100 = 9.9.

There aren’t many examples of foods with a high glycemic index and low glycemic load, however, as there is with watermelon. Also, while this notion of GI has been criticized, it seems today that it remains an indicator as reliable as the CG for classifying carbohydrates. The GI and the CG are therefore often correlated, although there are some exceptions it is true.

Here are some examples of foods with a high CG: fries, Big Mac or Giant hamburgers, crisps, colas, processed breakfast cereals such as Corn Flakes (and all those chocolatey ones that are even worse), pizzas, etc.

  • Low CG = <10
  • Average CG = between 11 and 19
  • High CG => 20

Insulin index:

More recently, these concepts have been supplemented by that of the insulin index (II). We are no longer talking here about the ability to raise blood sugar but rather about the secretion of insulin which follows the ingestion of food.

A chronically too high insulin promotes acne, overweight, inflammation (and therefore cancer, cardiovascular disease,) and type 2 diabetes. The benchmark II is that of white bread. It is 100.

For many foods, PIG and PII are correlated. Thus the sweets have very high GI and II. But it seems that some foods can have a low GI but a high II. This is the case, for example, with certain dairy products containing whey, such as yogurts and fresh cheeses. A yogurt has for example a GI of 62 but an II of 115 (more than white bread and equivalent to a chocolate bar!). Adding milk, even in normal quantity (a small glass of 200 ml) to a food, also increases the insulin index (and not glycemic) of the ingested food.

This is because insulin is not only released after a meal rich in carbohydrates. Researchers have found that the association of certain amino acids (constituents of proteins) with carbohydrates promotes the release of insulin twice as important as the same amount of carbohydrates consumed alone. Today, few foods have been the subject of an insulin index calculation, but note that white bread has an II of 100, and sweets such as chocolate bars or candies can go up to 160!

To lower the glycemic index:

  • The amount of fiber: the more fiber the food, the lower the glycemic index will be. Indeed, the fibrous envelope of the wall of plants acts as a barrier, which decreases the speed at which digestive enzymes have access to starch. The glycemic index of white flour is therefore higher than that of whole-grain flour.
  • Fiber viscosity: Soluble fiber is viscous in the gut and slows down the interaction between starch and enzymes and therefore reduces GI. Oatmeal and pulses are high in soluble fiber, which allows them to have a low GI. Insoluble fibers like whole wheat flours do not have this viscosity, which raises their GI. This is linked to the ability of starch to gelatinize: the less the starch swells, the lower the GI and vice versa. Thus, dense and compact bread is less gelatinized than sandwich bread and therefore has a lower GI.
  • Texture and particle size: the more a food is pureed or liquefied, the more its GI increases because the more water and enzymes penetrate quickly, the faster it is digested.
  • The proportion of starch in amylose and amylopectin (the two components of starch): the more the starch contains amylopectin, the more it will be easily digested, the higher the GI will be and the more the fat storage will increase. The more amylose it contains, the lower the GI will be. The important element is therefore the ratio between amylose and amylopectin of the starch present in the food. Thus, basmati rice, although being white, contains a lot of amylose and therefore has a moderate GI. This is also the case for pulses: lentils, beans, peas… for which the GI is among the best (they are also rich in fibers, pre-biotics and minerals. On the other hand, the starch of potatoes is richer in amylopectin, which raises its GI.
  • The presence of resistant starch: resistant starch is starch which is not digested in the intestine and which can therefore be considered as a fiber. It is naturally present in foods very high in amylose (therefore low GI) but it can also be formed by retrogradation when foods rich in starch are cooked and then cooled. This is the case for cold salads of pasta, rice, potatoes or lentils.
  • Acidity: Acids in food reduce the rate at which starch is digested. This is the reason why adding vinegar or lemon juice reduces the GI of the food. Likewise, sourdough bread has a lower glycemic index than baking powder.
  • The presence of fat: it decreases the GI, which is why a slice of unbuttered bread has a higher GI than that of buttered bread (which certainly does not mean that it is necessary to add these bad saturated fats, we can very well – Mediterranean style, dip your bread in olive oil or put a spread with seaweed, fermented soybeans, etc.)
  • The presence of protein does the same
  • The level of ripeness of fruits and vegetables. A very ripe banana will see its starch transform into very short chain carbohydrates which will raise the glycemic index. It is self-digested and is much sweeter than semi-ripe bananas.
  • The cooking time: the more the food is cooked, the more the GI increases. Thus the GI of al dente pasta is lower than that of vermicelli boiled in a soup, ditto for risotto compared to rice pudding.
  • The process: eating fruits and vegetables raw or whole, reduces the speed of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates compared to crushed, mixed (juice, smoothies) or pureed fruits.
  • The reduction of salt ++++ which is essential for the absorption of glucose.

What are the benefits of a low glycemic and low insulin stimulating diet?

  • A reduction in the risk of overweight and its complications: metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
  • A decrease in hunger: a significant and rapid rise in blood sugar always follows a rapid fall in blood sugar which will stimulate appetite. Sugar calls for sugar …,
  • Better management of food urges by better regulation of appetite and a better balance of serotonin (neurotransmitter with satietogenic effect for carbohydrates), This is valid for other urges and therefore speeding on the road, behavioral aggressiveness, anger, acting out, etc …
  • A study by Californian criminologist Schoenthaler shows that replacing fast carbohydrates with slow carbohydrates very significantly reduces violence in prisoners.
  • More energy: rapid drops in blood sugar are synonymous with physical, intellectual and psychological pumping. Thus a white bread-jam breakfast will be followed by drowsiness of the students at the end of the morning. A rapid rise in glucose stimulates insulin more and causes a rapid fall in blood sugar (“roller coaster”). Complex carbohydrates high in fiber and minerals (and the other measures we just saw) help stabilize blood sugar.
  • Better attention and concentration, better endurance, better balance of character
  • Better health: excess insulin not only promotes overweight, but also cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers (it is a promoter hormone) and all inflammatory pathologies, But also a decreased risk of cognitive decline and even Alzheimer’s disease where a component of glucose intolerance has been identified, which makes it also called “type 3 diabetes”.
  • Better longevity because glycation inhibits vital operations: energy production, immune defenses, gene repair, etc., promotes oxidation and accelerates aging and increases the risk of all degenerative pathologies.
  • A reduction in the risk of cataracts and peripheral neuropathies which are associated with an accumulation of glucose derivatives, the sorbitol which accumulates there, makes the lens crack and swells the sheaths of the nerves which compresses them. Lactose in milk does the same. In addition, milk has a high insulin index and promotes all of the complications listed above.
  • An anti-inflammatory flora: indeed rapid sugars, such as saturated fats, excess animal proteins and iron, additives and sweeteners, promote pathogenic bacteria while complex carbohydrates, zinc, omega 3, fibers, polyphenols support the “friendly”, anti-inflammatory flora. The choice of carbohydrates is therefore important to avoid the “leaky gut syndrome” and the inflammatory background noise coming from the digestive tract which spreads to the whole organism. This inflammatory background noise is now shown to be involved in overweight, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases and certain psychological disorders including hyperactivity and depression …

Focus on some carbohydrates:

Oses and health:


Glucose is obviously essential for survival, as it is the

main fuel for cells, and practically the only fuel for the brain

  • therefore the stability of its circulating rate is essential
  • therefore consuming it pure has the first drawback of rapidly increasing

its level in the blood which:

  • Causes glycation, spontaneous attachment to proteins and inhibits their function,
  • – by causing not only a drop in energy which affects all systems
  • – but slowing down all the biochemical reactions on which the immune defenses depend (increased vulnerability to infections for 4 to 5 hours after taking 50 g of sugar), antioxidant systems, detoxification, etc.

This glycation is amplified in diabetes with all the consequences that we know: lack of energy, vulnerability to infections, early cardiovascular pathologies, premature cognitive decline, accelerated aging.

  • Stimulates significant secretion of insulin and IGFI, mTOR stimulating factors, which has effects
  • – pro-inflammatory,
  • – blocking of FOXO and SIRT1, the orchestrating genes of all maintenance operations
  • – and therefore accelerates aging (opposite effect of sport and calorie restriction which minimize variations in blood sugar and insulinemia)
  • – but also leads to the promotion of cancers
  • The excess of fast sugars and the hyperinsulinism with which it is associated, hyperinsulinism which increases adipogenesis by causing more triglycerides to enter the adipose tissue, is a phenomenon almost always present in overweight and metabolic syndrome
  • This is all the more so since insulin causes branched amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine to enter the muscle, which promotes the elimination of competitors at the level of transport to the brain, the passage of tryptophan, and secondarily the production of serotonin – therefore SUGAR IS AN ADDICTIVE PSYCHOTROPE, like alcohol and tobacco which also have serotonergic, sedative and anxiolytic effects (sugar has been shown to be more addictive than cocaine in rodents by the researcher Serge Ahmed)
  • Raises triglycerides, a cardiovascular risk factor
  • Is a key fuel for cancer cells which also uses insulin as a growth factor (not to mention that glucose weakens the immune system).
  • It accumulates in the lens and the nerve sheaths and is transformed by aldose reductase into Sorbitol, which is very hygroscopic, attracts water, cracks the proteins in the lens, which causes early cataract and compresses the nerves, which gives peripheral neuropathies (obviously the earliest in diabetics, but this phenomenon also affects non-diabetics who are heavy consumers of fast sugars). It is aggravated by the consumption of dairy products, with lactose undergoing the same transformation. On the other hand, aldose reductase is inhibited by polyphenols which are therefore protective.
  • Is strongly cariogenic

Drugs on our plates:

the giants of the agro-food industry provide 80% of the food consumed, centered on addictive cocktails in which sugar holds a central place, the only Oreo cookie from Kraft brings in a billion dollars a year, it is the result of ‘massive investments in the trapping by the taste of sugar and various chemical additives (3 billion dollars per year), the world consumption of sugar has tripled in 30 years, 5 kg of sugar are bought by the French per person and by year, but they consume 50 kg (45 being hidden in industrial foods), in animals sugar dependence is preferred to cocaine addiction, food addiction is objectified in humans by studies of brain imaging, the association of Overeaters in Belgium is built on the model of Alcoholics Anonymous,”I prefer to eat than to make love”, William Loewenstein, addictologist: “dealers retain their customers through sugar, salt and fat”, Nestlé, Danone, Kraft, Unilever decline requests for interviews for the documentary, the number of obese people has doubled in the space of a generation, Olivier de Shutter, special rapporteur at the UN, calls on all governments to come out of inaction in the face of the scourges caused by the agri-food industry, this problem requires political mobilization in the same way as global warming, Monique Goyens, representing a federation of consumer unions is fighting for the imposition of a 3-color code (red, orange, green) warning about the quantities of sugar / salt / saturated and trans fats in foods,a project against which the agri-food industry has successfully spent $ 1 billion in lobbying the European Parliament, on a voluntary basis, a few distribution networks in Germany and Portugal have adopted this system, Serge Hercberg in France is proposing a system signaling in 5 colors which immediately aroused violent opposition from industrialists, William Bourdon, lawyer believes that manufacturers should be prosecuted when they conceal the effects of the ingredients they use to make their products addictive, Jacques Lalanne of the CPAM of the Sarthe: 16 million French people have chronic pathologies, 33% are overweight, overweight and obesity cost 147 billion dollars per year, 10 billion euros per year in France, Danish deputies, represented by Christel Schadelmouse,voted a tax on sugary and fatty products, France taxed sugary drinks, Ellie Krieger, chief, believes that the industry can make money with healthy products, testimony of Joan Gussow, American nutritionist who was pioneer and given the warning several decades ago, it advises not to buy in mass distribution anymore, the consumer can, by his choices, force the industry to evolve, without waiting for governments to have the courage to take action commensurate with the advises not to buy in mass distribution any more, the consumer can, by his choices, force the industry to evolve, without waiting for the governments to have the courage to take measures to the height of the advises not to buy in mass distribution any more, the consumer can, by his choices, force the industry to evolve, without waiting for the governments to have the courage to take measures to the height of the problem.

Fructose & Health:

Fructose is a monosaccharide with a very low glycemic index, which (wrongly) earns it a very good reputation. Consumed reasonably and in natural form via fruits, it does not of course present any health problem. But it is also very present in the agave syrup which has such good press (and in the USA in industrial products in the form of corn syrups enriched in fructose). However, studies show that taking added fructose opens the appetite, promotes weight gain, glycation, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome …


  • It does not stimulate insulin or overwork the pancreas
  • It is much less likely than sucrose or glucose to be addictive
  • It is not very cariogenic

Problems :

Studies indicate that:

  • consuming more than 50 grams of fructose (equivalent to 800 g of apples) per day can cause bloating, gas and diarrhea
  • fructose raises triglycerides in the blood, a cardiovascular risk factor
  • it produces hepatic accumulations of fat (steatosis)
  • it is a powerful factor in obesity
  • fructose increases levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite
  • it does not induce the secretion of leptin, a hormone involved in satiety
  • in equal quantity, fructose provides as many calories as cooking sugar or glucose, but does not induce satiety as quickly, which results in a greater consumption, with the consequence of a weight gain which would probably not have not occurred if the sweet taste was due to sucrose
  • this is amplified by the fact that the consumption of fructose does not inhibit the brain regions involved in the regulation of appetite and reward circuits> dopaminergic / endorphinic
  • fructose induces protein fructation which has the same effects as glycation, reducing energy, immune defenses, anti-toxic, maintenance – it is therefore, like glucose, an accelerator of aging and a factor of degenerative pathologies
  • fructose has a chelating effect of magnesium, the availability of which it reduces, worsening the anti-energy effects, making it vulnerable to all kinds of stress and accelerating aging and the appearance of pathologies
  • increases the risk of gout

In practice, fructose in fruits is associated with fiber and protective nutrients.

Except in overweight, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia where you should not abuse some fruits very rich in fructose such as dates, dried figs, grapes, there is no problem to consume fruits even in quantities.

> On the other hand:

  • corn syrups enriched in fructose (widely used by the food industry)
  • fruit jellies
  • honey, a mixture of glucose and fructose
  • agave syrup and sweet products with agave syrup (found in the organic circuit)
  • fructose powder as well as jams, chocolate, etc. with fructose (offered to diabetics!)

are unacceptable to overweight people, diabetics and people with hypertriglyceridemia and should only be used in small doses by others.

On the other hand, higher doses of fructose just after prolonged exercise facilitate the hepatic glycogen recharge of athletes.

Lactose and health:

Lactose intolerance would concern 10 to 30% of European and North American populations, 75% on average in the world. If lactose is poorly digested (due to lack of lactase), it can be a source of digestive disorders bloating, diarrhea, abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, headache, vomiting (especially in children), constipation, this called “lactose intolerance”.

Test: measurement of the hydrogen concentration in exhaled air increases after absorption of lactose if the subject is intolerant


But if lactose is absorbed it accumulates throughout life in tissues, especially the lens and in the sheaths of the nerves where galactose is transformed into galactitol by aldose reductase.

Galactitol, very hygroscopic, attracts water, cracks the proteins of the lens, which causes early cataracts and compresses the nerves, which gives rise to peripheral neuropathies (obviously the earliest in diabetics, but this phenomenon also affects patients with non-diabetics who are heavy consumers of fast sugars and / or dairy products).

On the other hand, aldose reductase is inhibited by many polyphenols which are therefore protective.

Taurine also appears to be protective in an animal model.

> Malone J et al, Taurine prevents galactose-induced cataracts, Diabetes Complications, 1993; 7 (1): 44-8

Studies show that consuming 100 ml of milk per day or more increases the risk of cataracts three-fold in the elderly and six-fold in diabetics

> Inès Birlouez Aragon

Sweeteners and health:

There are several on the market. Not everyone agrees on their health effects, but one thing is certain: they are not the solution to weight problems on our planet. Since their arrival on the market (for example aspartame was discovered in the 60s and put on the market in Europe in the 80s), we really cannot say that the obesity problems have been solved. Far from there. Add to this that sweetened foods are sometimes (not to say often) high in fat, phosphoric acid (promoting osteoporosis), colors or additives and therefore cannot be assimilated to healthy foods.

Synthetic sweeteners have the following drawbacks:

  • They maintain the pleasure of the sweet taste
  • They saturate the taste buds preventing them from savoring the authentic flavors.
  • They are often present in nutritionally unattractive foods and encourage their consumption.
  • They sometimes give the impression that food can be eaten at will and therefore consume larger amounts of food that is not always advisable.
  • They make you lose the habit of consuming natural foods like water, fruits
  • They are not counted by the hypothalamus as calories, so that we compensate by a greater total food intake, hence the complete failure in overweight
  • They disrupt the flora of the colon (this is shown for aspartame and sucralose) which promotes inflammation, digestive permeability (leaky gut) and all their consequences (overweight, glucose intolerance, food intolerance, psycho-disturbances). behavioral …)
  • For some of them, they seem to show that they could alter the metabolism of glucose and insulin by modifying the intestinal flora. A study very recently highlighted that certain sweeteners, mainly saccharin but also aspartame, induce glucose intolerance in mice, but also in humans, by modifying the composition of the microbiota, in favor of bacteria already previously associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.




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  • They do not raise blood sugar, but could stimulate insulin secretion.

Indeed, there are certain foods that increase insulin while they have no impact on blood sugar. Some researchers have been able to put forward that the cephalic phase of insulin secretion (secretion of insulin before the nutrients are absorbed, namely during chewing for example) is determined by the taste of the sugar and not by its fate. metabolic. They are therefore not “neutral” from a metabolic point of view. Indeed, sweeteners are detected in the tongue and in the digestive tract by the same receptors as those of food carbohydrates. This is why sweeteners interfere with the digestive absorption of carbohydrates and increase it when they are ingested concomitantly (a plate of pasta or bread with a diet soda for example).It is interesting to note that this effect varies according to the sweetener used, sucralose being the one that most affects the absorption of carbohydrates.

While the consumption of sweeteners is encouraged among diabetics to help them consume fewer calories and better control their blood sugar, they can actually have the opposite effect, it is a shame …

Jotham Suez et al, Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota, Nature 2014

The most natural sweetener currently appears to be stevia.

But the products which contain it are often of poor nutritional quality (industrial products) and that as a sweetener, it therefore has the same faults, namely the maintenance of the sweet taste, etc …

Malrodextrins and xylitol are better options. The best option is to sweeten naturally with grape juice, mashed bananas, figs, etc….

To know more :

Author Jean-Paul Curtay


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