Diet limits

0
55

Would a more varied diet improve this situation?

This question has been evaluated both experimentally and epidemiologically.

Studies by Mareschi using “ideal” balanced menus as defined by nutritionists show that it is not possible to achieve, with less than 2,500 calories, 80% of the recommended intakes for most vitamins. . It would take at least 2,700 balanced calories in men to reach recommended mineral intakes, and with 2,000 balanced calories in women and 2,500 balanced calories in pregnant women, 80% of recommended mineral intakes are still not achieved.

A nutritional survey carried out in Holland examined the same question epidemiologically.

By studying the vitamin and mineral intakes of groups consuming either varied menus present in all food categories, or unbalanced menus, the authors come to the conclusion that the impact of caloric quantity is much more significant. that of the variety of foods and that “eating a variety of foods” is far from leading to adequate micronutrient intakes.

Should we increase the amount of calories we eat?

No, since the increase in calories has negative effects on longevity and the frequency of certain degenerative pathologies, such as cancer.

It is also well established that increasing calories leads to an increase in the need for certain vitamins. For example, increasing the amount of carbohydrate requires increasing the amount of vitamin B1, and increasing the amount of protein requires increasing the amount of vitamin B6.

Likewise, increasing the amount of unsaturated fatty acids requires increasing the amount of vitamin E.

This phenomenon, which probably concerns other micronutrients, limits the value of increasing the calorie intake in order to improve vitamin and mineral intake.

It is therefore the nutritional density that it is necessary to increase, but the simple advice to eat “varied” is not enough.

In order to obtain satisfactory intakes of vitamins, minerals and certain other nutrients, such as fatty acids and essential or conditionally essential amino acids, it is necessary to increase the frequency of consumption of foods particularly rich in micronutrients, and supplementation capable of compensating for the limitations of the diet.

Indeed there are few foods particularly rich in micronutrients. In addition, some foods overuse themselves or make unavailable the micronutrient (s) they contain.

The foods richest in vitamin E are also rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Vitamin E is used by these fatty acids to protect against rancidity. It is therefore consumed by the very food which supplies it, and this not only before its ingestion but also afterwards. Since any ingested polyunsaturated fatty acid must be combined with vitamin E in order to prevent its oxidation in the body, which would make it both unusable and toxic. When considering food sources of vitamin E, it is therefore necessary to relate their richness in vitamin E to their content in polyunsaturated fatty acids. This is what was done by Bàssler. It shows that among the foods richest in vitamin E, very little remains with a positive overall balance: wheat germ oil, sunflower oil, hazelnuts,almonds, the others presenting a zero balance, like corn oil or peanuts, or negative like walnuts, mackerel, herring. The average intake of vitamin E is 4.5 mg, of which about 90% is used by the polyunsaturated fats of the foods that provide it, while the dose not to be deficient is about 30 mg and the protective dose to reduce the rate of oxidative phenomena affecting lipids during aging and cardiovascular risks and other degenerative pathologies has been evaluated at 100 mg minimum.while the dose to avoid deficiency is around 30 mg and the protective dose to reduce the rate of oxidative phenomena affecting lipids during aging and cardiovascular risks and other degenerative pathologies has been evaluated at 100 mg minimum .while the dose to avoid deficiency is around 30 mg and the protective dose to reduce the rate of oxidative phenomena affecting lipids during aging and cardiovascular risks and other degenerative pathologies has been evaluated at 100 mg minimum .

In other words, not only are there very few foods that actually provide vitamin E, but among the foods richest in vitamin E some take it from our reserves if there is any, or otherwise become the target of free radicals, oxidize and contribute to pathological processes.

Beta-carotene, which protects plants from the toxic effects of exposure to the sun, and vitamin C, which protects their non-lipidic tissues from oxidation, are also found “self-consumed” by the foods that provide them.

Enzymes present in the food, which provide the micronutrient, or in foods eaten at the same meal, can also destroy it. For example, the thiaminases present in certain fish and shellfish are capable of destroying the vitamin B1 which they contain and which the food ingested at the same meal contains. Oxidases present in plants can destroy vitamin C.

Many other anti-vitamin and anti-mineral factors introduced by food naturally or after storage, industrial processing or cooking, lead to a reduction in micronutrient intakes.

Foods rich in phytates (especially beans, whole wheat, bran, soybeans, corn) reduce the absorption of zinc, calcium, iron, chromium and vitamin B6; foods rich in oxalates (especially spinach, sorrel, rhubarb, figs, cocoa products) reduce the absorption of calcium; foods rich in phosphorus (especially sodas and other industrial drinks, animal proteins, legumes) reduce the absorption of calcium, magnesium and iron; pastries, preserved foods that contain both protein and sugar (especially based on skimmed milk powder, cocoa and breakfast cereals, biscuits) reduce the absorption of zinc (besides amino acids like lysine or arginine are made unavailable);the oxidized fats present in cooked animal proteins, fried foods, products made from egg yolk or skimmed milk powder, vegetable oils, etc., reduce the absorption of vitamin E; many foods reduce the absorption of vitamin B9, but already, naturally, the bioavailability of micronutrients is very variable. Heme iron from animal proteins is absorbed at about 25% while non-heme iron from vegetable proteins is absorbed at about 5%. But in practice, the mixing of different forms of iron and the simultaneous presence of other foods results in a variation in absorption in people with similar reserves of up to 40%. As for the availability of zinc, it oscillates between 10 and 40%.products made from egg yolk or skimmed milk powder, vegetable oils, etc., reduce the absorption of vitamin E; many foods reduce the absorption of vitamin B9, but already, naturally, the bioavailability of micronutrients is very variable. Heme iron from animal proteins is absorbed at about 25% while non-heme iron from vegetable proteins is absorbed at about 5%. But in practice, the mixing of different forms of iron and the simultaneous presence of other foods results in a variation in absorption in people with similar reserves of up to 40%. As for the availability of zinc, it oscillates between 10 and 40%.products made from egg yolk or skimmed milk powder, vegetable oils, etc., reduce the absorption of vitamin E; many foods reduce the absorption of vitamin B9, but already, naturally, the bioavailability of micronutrients is very variable. Heme iron from animal proteins is absorbed at about 25% while non-heme iron from vegetable proteins is absorbed at about 5%. But in practice, the mixing of different forms of iron and the simultaneous presence of other foods results in a variation in absorption in people with similar reserves of up to 40%. As for the availability of zinc, it oscillates between 10 and 40%.many foods reduce the absorption of vitamin B9, but already, naturally, the bioavailability of micronutrients is very variable. Heme iron from animal proteins is absorbed at about 25% while non-heme iron from vegetable proteins is absorbed at about 5%. But in practice, the mixing of different forms of iron and the simultaneous presence of other foods results in a variation in absorption in people with similar reserves of up to 40%. As for the availability of zinc, it oscillates between 10 and 40%.many foods reduce the absorption of vitamin B9, but already, naturally, the bioavailability of micronutrients is very variable. Heme iron from animal proteins is absorbed at about 25% while non-heme iron from vegetable proteins is absorbed at about 5%. But in practice, the mixing of different forms of iron and the simultaneous presence of other foods results in a variation in absorption in people with similar reserves of up to 40%. As for the availability of zinc, it oscillates between 10 and 40%.the mixing of different forms of iron and the simultaneous presence of other foods results in a variation in absorption in people with similar stores of up to 40%. As for the availability of zinc, it oscillates between 10 and 40%.the mixing of different forms of iron and the simultaneous presence of other foods results in a variation in absorption in people with similar stores of up to 40%. As for the availability of zinc, it oscillates between 10 and 40%.

Dietary factors reducing micronutrient bioavailability

Much of the vitamin B6 present in food, especially of plant origin, is not absorbable.

Vitamin B9 exists in foods as well-absorbed monoglutamates, or very poorly absorbed polyglutamates. On average, the diet provides three quarters of vitamin B9 in the form of polyglutamates.

With the intervention of other factors, the bioavailability of vitamin B9 varies between 30 and 80%.

As for the absorption of biotin, it is even more variable: 0% for wheat, 20 to 30% for most other cereals, 100% for corn, very low for meats.

In addition, components of the diet can also increase either the catabolism or the excretion of micronutrients, or interfere with their use.

Thus, in addition to increasing the need for B vitamins, a large consumption of carbohydrates leads to an increase in urinary losses of chromium; that of fructose interferes with the use of selenium; that of salt and coffee increase calciuria and may help accelerate bone demineralization.

As for the excess of sugar, fructose, saturated fats, trans fats (which are found in particular in hydrogenated vegetable margarines, frying oils and all derived products), they interfere with the metabolism of essential acids.

However, relying on the fact that fructose does not increase insulinemia and therefore does not enter nutrients with a problematic glycemic index, the food industry, in particular in the USA, has massively replaced glucose and sucrose with high fructose corn syrups.

This is the announcement of a new health disaster Indeed, apart from micronutritional interference, the fructose added in excess (which does not concern the fructose present in the fruits and associated with fibers and protective nutrients), increases triglycerides and leads to paralysis of proteins and enzymes, a phenomenon called fructation similar to glycation which is responsible for most of the problems associated with diabetes!

Increase in micronutrient requirements due to dietary factors

On the contrary, in some cases, unfortunately much less frequent, food components promote the bioavailability of micronutrients. Milk contains elements like lactose which promote the absorption of calcium, while the absorption of calcium from cheeses, in which fats form insoluble soaps with calcium, is discussed. Foods rich in vitamin C, especially fresh fruits and vegetables, increase the absorption of iron, as well as unidentified factors, which are found in meats and fish. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and wine improve the absorption of zinc, foods rich in oxalates the absorption of chromium.

Dietary factors improving micronutrient bioavailability

Author Jean-Paul Curtay