* Prematurity is defined by the birth of a child before 37 SA gone. Extreme prematurity is defined by the birth of a baby before 32 weeks.
* Risk situations: Primiparity; multiparity ≥ 4; age <18 or> 35 years; unwanted pregnancy; Adverse SCE; poor working condition and transport.
* Intrauterine growth restriction or IUGR is defined by a weight of newborns below the 10th percentile (or 22 DS) for a given term.
– The long-term prognosis is poor in cases of IUGR harmonious; while it is good if IUGR disharmonious (pre-dominates on weight). The onset is later in the second case.
– Maternal causes: essential hypertension; vascular-renal syndrome (IUGR disharmonious) smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction (harmonious IUGR); uterine malformations; multiple pregnancy
– Placental causes: single umbilical artery; placenta previa; placental infarction
– Fetal causes: chromosomal abnormality; malformation syndromes; Infectious embryofœtopathies (toxoplasmosis, rubella, syphilis, CMV, herpes).
– Immediate hazards: metabolic disorders; disorders of hemostasis; ischemic encephalopathy ….
– Long-term risks: growth retardation (IUGR harmonious) psychomotor retardation.