Blood sugar assay to diagnose possible anomalies of glucose metabolism, such as pancreatic insufficiency with insulin production deficit: what is diabetes.
But it is also essential in monitoring the treatment of diabetes, whether Type I or Type II.
The assay of plasma glucose reflects blood sugar in the body, not related to the hematocrit.
venous blood sample anticoagulated (EDTA, diamino tetraacetic acid ethylene) and antiglycolytic to prevent red blood cells, which contain many enzymes of glycolysis, consume glucose sampling.
The patient must be strictly fasting for 12 hours.
The assay method is enzyme to glucose oxidase or hexokinase.
The postprandial dosing, conducted two hours after a meal, is a complementary examination to demonstrate pancreatic function.
– Fasting 3.9 to 5.3 mmol / L, 0.7 to 0.95 g / L;
– In postprandial <1.4 g / L or 7.8 mmol / L.
Pathological changes in fasting:
– Hyperglycemia (defined according to WHO recommendations):> 1.28 g / L; that we talk about diabetes, two successive sampling must exceed this limit;
– Hypoglycemia <0.5 g / L; it may be due to:
– Adrenal or pituitary insufficiency,
– Thoracic or abdominal tumor (paraneoplastic syndrome)
– Liver metastasis,
– But also be a primitive or functional hypoglycemia.
Insufficient sampling give falsely low results.
When blood glucose is below 1.7 mmol / L, neurological consequences are to be feared.
emphasize to patients on strict observance of fasting 12 hours before the examination and the need to do the day before the blood sample a light meal.