Hemoglobin Electrophoresis



The examination is useful when suspected hemolytic anemia or haematological disease associated with the patient’s geographic origin, namely Africa, specifically the southern Sahara.


The majority of abnormal hemoglobins have a different electric charge from normal: the amino acids of the globin located outside are hydrophilic effect and electrically charged.

By subjecting the hemoglobin electrophoretic load, abnormal cells can thus be detected by their different migration.

Hemoglobin electrophoresis

Sampling 5 ml of heparinized blood tube or EDTA (ethylene diamino tetraacetic acid) calcium.


Normal values:

– HbA1c (α2, β2): 97-98%;

– HbA2 (α2, β2): 2%;

– HdF (α2, β2): <1%.

– Newborn: 80% of HbF is replaced by an HbA in six months;

– Black: the presence of HbC;

– Yellow race: the presence of HbE.

Pathological changes:

– Sickle cell disease: 75 to 95% of HbS and HbA not.

– Thalassemia large amount of HbF, HbA2 or, or to HbH.



Practical advice:

The ethnic origin of the person should be on the order.

A reduction in serum iron can lower HbA2.

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